I don’t know exactly what the future holds or what phones are going to look like in a few years time but I am pretty certain that in the near future more and more phone conversations are going to go over the internet. Desk phone systems, mobiles and soft phones are all using the internet more and more.
A Brief Background To Hosted Telephony
Hosted telephony has been around for ages, since the 1960’s in fact. For many years it was run over ordinary phone lines and this type of system is known as Centrex. Some of you may have heard of BT’s Featureline version of it which is still being used today. Featureline or Centrex is a phone system housed centrally back at the exchange that you can access using special phones connected to it over ordinary telephone lines. Compared to today’s internet phone systems it’s a little clunky but it still works well enough.
Hosted telephony over the internet on the other hand has had a difficult birth but has grown up and works really well now. Some people call it a Cloud service which indeed it is. Its origins go back to the early 1970’s but it took until around 2004 before this type of telephony became a credible service. With the advent of faster and more reliable broadband in the last few years it’s now become a low cost and reliable service that is easily made available to domestic and business users alike.
I love Hosted Telephony
There were around 155 million subscribers to internet based telephony in 2013 (source Point Topic)
I have been involved with Hosted Telephony for around 10 years and I think it’s a brilliant service. I thought it was a fantastic concept the first time I was introduced to it. The trouble in the early days was that it didn’t work very well and the broadband available just wasn’t up to it. I have to say there were some very painful moments in the early days and VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) based telephony was pretty flaky. VoIP soon gathered a bad reputation amongst the early pioneers such that you would hear “oh yes, VoIP, the business down the road had that put in but it was rubbish and they had to take it back out again, I’m not touching it”.
I remember the unreliable early days of mobile telephony and my first analogue mobile phone. It’s often the same whenever any new service or product comes out, the early pioneers take the hits.
The Good News
Hosted Telephony over the internet has come of age.
The good news is that VoIP based Hosted Telephony is so much better now. Services are reliable, quality is high, systems are flexible and it’s simple to set up. So much so that most providers can send you pre-configured phones that you can plug into your network like any other device and they will just work out of the box. Some networks need a few adjustments but most don’t.
With emerging high definition audio the quality of calls is becoming much better than anything we have used before.
In some countries this type of telephony is set to be the dominant service in the near future. Take up in the UK is increasing with over 4 million subscribers in 2013 and it’s likely that this figure has exceeded 5 million by now. Much of the main BT trunking of UK calls is now over internet services so it doesn’t make a great deal of difference any more whether you use traditional telephone lines or not.
But I Still Don’t Quite Get It, What Actually Is Hosted Telephony Over The Internet?
To explain more clearly …
Up to the last few years most businesses would go out and buy a phone system which they would install in their premises and attach phone lines and phone extensions to. A business would then have to maintain the system or more likely pay a telecommunications company to do it. When they wanted to change something they often had to get an engineer to do it. Capital expenditure was relatively high and they would have to get a new system every so many years as technology moved on and as manufactures stop supporting older systems. This cycle would usually run over 5 to 10 years.
Most domestic users wouldn’t dream of owning a phone system. Instead they would usually have a phone line and phone that lets them access some of the services you get on a phone system such as voice mail or call redirection.
Hosted telephony is a phone system but one that is held in a computer server farm somewhere and maintained by the company that supplies the service to you. All you or your business needs to do is buy the appropriate phones with the service and that’s it. If a phone goes wrong you can just get another one, change a few settings and off you go, as if nothing happened. You can much more easily control the phone and your phone system account from a web browser or plug-in widget … from anywhere. It’s like many other apps we use these days. Maybe this sounds too simple but that’s how it is nowadays and it works!
Here Are 10 Reasons Why I Like It So Much!
1 – Low Capital Investment
Cost is a big bottom line for many. There’s very little equipment needed for IP based Hosted Telephony. You need the phones, a decent broadband supply and a switch, preferably a POE switch (one that can supply power to the phones).
Typically, at the time of writing:
- £100 – 8 Port POE switch or £300 – 24 port POE switch (Power Over Ethernet – supplies power and data to the phone)
- £80 – A budget display IP phone
So let’s say you wanted an 8 phone system, that would need just the 8 phones and an 8 port POE switch which will probably cost in the region of £740 including tax for the hardware. A traditional phone system might cost twice as much or even more once it’s all installed.
You can also use soft phones (use your computer to make calls) albeit they are not usually as good as a dedicated internet phone (IP phone).
Just because I don’t want to miss these things out; you can use conference phones and business or domestic class wireless phones with Hosted Telephony too!
Most suppliers will have a range of phones from one or more manufacturers that you can use depending on whether you want very simple phones all the way up to sophisticated colour display phones with touch screens.
2 – Scalable
This is one of the most flexible things about Hosted Telephony. Most Hosted Telephony systems are billed for monthly on a per subscriber basis so if you have 8 phone’s you pay 8 subscriptions. This is like having 8 traditional phone lines … in fact it’s like having more than 8 lines as you can put people on hold whilst you talk to another and hold 3 way conference calls so it’s more like having 16 phone lines available for when you need them.
Typically a subscription will cost between £6 and £10 depending on the provider and the features you want. For 8 phones you might be paying £56 a month. Here’s the but … with most providers you can change the number of subscriptions you have each month so if your business is 8 people this month, 12 people the next month and 6 the month after that you only have to pay for the number of subscriptions you use at those times. It’s true that you may need to buy the extra phones but at least you only need to pay for services as and when you need them.
In a similar way extra features like call recording and operator consoles can be added and taken away as needed.
3 – Mobility
For Hosted Telephony mobility can mean quite a few things …
If you are based in London, you have a 0208 number for example and you want to move to say Nottingham, no problem, just unplug the switch and the phones, take them to Nottingham, plug it all back in again and carry on. You will retain your 0208 number and in theory if your move was to Australia the same applies.
Got an office with some people working from home? Maybe you have an apartment in Spain? That’s no problem either, each can have their own phone or soft phone wherever they are and it’s still part of the same system. It’s worth mentioning that calls between phones on the same system are free, wherever they are.
Sometimes you are in the office, sometimes at home, sometimes at clients and sometimes in the car. Again no problem you can set Hosted Telephony to follow you by ringing each of your phones in turn until you answer or if you like all your phones can be rung at the same time.
Some systems might have a little app that goes on your mobile to make it part of the system. As an aside more mobile phones are becoming available that can make calls over the internet when available instead of the 2G mobile network.
Hosted telephony allows you to use numbers that are not in your area so if you are in London and want to have numbers for Bath and Brighton that’s no problem either. I don’t know if this is a good or bad thing but it does mean that area based numbers are losing their meaning, much as the mobile phone network by default means area numbers don’t make any sense.
4 – Easy to Maintain And Great Support
If you have your own on premises phone system you often end up paying for support. Support for when you don’t understand something, when you need something changed and for when something goes wrong.
With Hosted telephony much of that support comes with the subscription. The thing that you may need help with from your IT support is if there are problems on your network or broadband supply. Having said that Hosted Telephony support will overlap with your IT support and if your Hosted telephony supplier is supplying your broadband then this area is covered.
Support will be able to help you with how to do things yourself and will be able to do them for you if needed.
5 – A Uniform Experience Everywhere
Let’s say you have a business with one main office and 10 branches. If you went down the traditional PBX route and you had opened the branches at different times you might have a variety of phone systems or maybe no phone system if the branch is very small. These systems might not talk to each at all or maybe partially. The different phone systems may work in different ways.
With hosted Telephony none of this matters, the system works the same everywhere, everyone can communicate with everyone else and it doesn’t matter if there is 1 person or 100 people at any particular location.
6 – Backup and Fail-over
Because the main system is hosted in secure duplicated environments everything is backed up for you from the system configuration to any recorded calls you might have. If the computer with your system on it fails then another takes over and you will notice little or no difference, chances are you won’t even know that anything happened.
But … what happens if your broadband goes down and some of your phones are disconnected from the system? That’s also not so much of a problem. Depending on how you want things to work there are several ways in which inbound calls can still get to you. You can redirect calls to another phone in another branch, your own phone or a colleague’s. If you already have calls following you or ringing your phones simultaneously then those phones will continue to ring.
7 – Control From Your PC
Most Hosted Telephony systems can be managed by yourself either at individual level or at system level. As a long time user of Hosted Telephony I have a tool bar that is installed on Outlook which controls much of my phone and which I find very convenient.
You can also control things by logging in from a web browser from anywhere, from menu items on your phone and through older style star codes e.g. *78 will activate Do Not Disturb mode.
From the web browser login you can get reports on the calls going in and out of your system:
You can control many things in the system easily from anywhere without needing an engineer and without having to know much about telephone systems or how they work. The phone system just becomes another piece of software for you to access.
8 – More Future Proof Than Many Other Solutions
From time to time the system will be upgraded to fix any bugs that might still be in the systems (there are always some bugs in every computer system), to improve existing features and add new ones. This will all be maintained for you. Systems could be quite different in 10 years but you don’t have to worry about it. The only hardware you might want to change is the phones and the switch but even those items can receive firmware and software updates so that they can go on doing their job for longer. Changing phones is a cost but at least any disruption is kept to a minimum and can be phased if necessary.
9 – Bolt-ons For When You Need Them
Depending on your business and how you run it you might want a few extra features such as call recording, call queueing, auto attendants, an operators console and maybe even a wall board for a call centre. You may need some of these only some of the time so again, you only need to pay for what you are using when you are using it.
10 – A Low Carbon Footprint
Last and not least, like many Cloud services you and your company will be doing your bit for the environment. The servers used with Hosted Telephony are usually high quality enterprise servers that use less energy than others and result in a reduced carbon footprint all round.
You will probably be using phones which will use some power but you won’t have a phone system control unit to run so will be using less electricity than you would if you had a more traditional system.
Each user takes around 90kbps internet bandwidth per call running over your existing network and possibly your existing broadband supply. Even if you need a dedicated broadband supply this utilises less infrastructure than multiple analogue or ISDN phone lines and therefore uses less energy.
So What’s Not To Like?
Well, there isn’t much not to like but there may be situations where having your own system might be better. With most Hosted Telephony business models you pay by subscription so if you have 50 users then that might cost £400 or so a month once you take the cost of broadband into account. On the other hand a traditional phone system with maintenance, phone line rental and depreciation might cost the same, perhaps more, perhaps less. It depends on convenience and how phone active your staff are.
If you have other systems that integrate with your phone system that perhaps Hosted Telephony cannot integrate with then you may need an appropriate phone system in-house. Maybe you just like to have control of your phone system and run your own in-house Hosted Telephony tailored more specifically to your business.
For many businesses Hosted Telephony is an excellent solution which overall may work out costing less when all the factors of running your own system are taken account.
Trying Out Hosted Telephony
Depending on your supplier you can try Hosted Telephony out. At the very least you can start with 1 or 2 phones to see how it all works. Some suppliers might lend you a trial phone and a subscription for a couple of weeks if they think you have a serious intent. A demonstration is easily possible.
If you would like to know more or just have a chat then fill out the form below and let’s start a dialogue, leave your number and we’ll call you or you can call 0844 893 2151.
There’s quite a buzz about Hosted Desktop Services (HDS) these days and for many businesses it makes a lot of sense. Maybe it doesn’t initially look so great for some IT support companies and departments but if embraced in the right way it can be a benefit for them as well.
HDS, sometimes referred to as cloud services or software as a service, is not really such a new idea. Before people started using PC’s as the mainstay device most computer systems had servers and intelligent workstations which we now call thin clients. Unix users will be very familiar with this concept.
Intelligent workstations like the thin clients of today had some memory and processor capacity but they mostly accessed software off of a server. Now that good broadband supplies are available the same type of system can be accessed over the internet. It has always been a good system!
In a nut shell a Hosted Desktop Service is “your PC” managed remotely and that can be accessed anytime, anywhere, from any device without all the headaches of maintaining it or the loss of performance that you often get with Windows based PC’s.
Here are 10 reasons why it’s a good idea for many businesses!
1 – A Uniform Experience Everywhere On Everything
Putting software on a central server means everyone can access the same software from anywhere. No more worries about which versions, which licenses, upgrading versions etc. Many HDS services will give access to software using apps that will work on nearly any device such as Citrix which works on Windows, Android, Apple OS, Linux, Unix, phones, tablets and other popular platforms that I may have missed out. It will work on different versions of different operating systems too!
2 – Backups & Security All Looked After For You
Backup and security are a necessary pain. It can be a worry when considering HDS, after all, how good is the suppliers backup and security? The answer is that it has to be good! Some companies will undoubtedly be storing sensitive and valuable data so HDS suppliers need to make sure everything is backed up in real time or close to it, often across different server locations in different countries.
Security has to be really good because if anyone hacked into the HDS systems it would be trouble for customer and supplier alike. That goes for up-time too which needs to be 99.99% of the time!
Because the software and data is stored on the HDS servers if a device is stolen or lost it’s no problem especially with HDS sessions timing out.
Similarly antivirus and anti-malware services are all taken care of.
Backup, security and availability will be better than that which most companies have on their own systems.
3 – Speed
If you have used Windows based machines you will be familiar with the way that they can slow down over time. Maybe because there is too much software on a PC, because of a virus, perhaps the hard disc has faults, not enough memory or maybe the computer is just generally underpowered. This is not a problem with HDS where the servers are high quality, fast and maintained for you. The servers are doing all the work for you, all your device has to do is run the software that allows you to access the servers which doesn’t tax a device or use much internet bandwidth.
It’s like having a new PC everyday. People can work faster, be more productive and won’t have the frustration associated with slow computers.
Just as an example I tested loading up Microsoft Word and a few other Microsoft products and the load up times were between half a second and 2 seconds.
4 – Proactive Support
Another headache with maintaining software and hardware is keeping everything up to date, often across many devices. Most of that won’t apply with HDS as support staff are keeping everything up to date for their customers and monitoring systems for faults.
HDS users will still have queries and sometimes things may go wrong so it’s important that support is available during working hours and maybe even 24/7support. This is a level of support available with HDS as many companies are using it and some at all hours.
5 – Improved Cash Flow
HDS is a scalable subscription service where different people can use different software at different times. This gives flexibility that can be controlled. The cost can be fixed to be the same each month or it can be capped to how much a customer is willing to spend each month allowing flexibility without loss of control. There are few unexpected expenses to accommodate. HDS is an easy service to build into a company’s monthly and yearly budget.
6 – Mobility
Because it works anywhere in the world where there is an internet connection and on almost any device it can be used in London, Sydney, Delhi or perhaps even in space (one day). No special connections are needed. If a company moves office it doesn’t matter, if someone has to work at home it doesn’t matter. Use a PC, tablet, laptop or even a phone!
People can use their own hardware or simple thin clients* with any suitable screen.
*A thin client is a small box used to connect everything together such as a screen, a keyboard and a mouse. It can be simply configured to access an HDS service. Thin clients often have a built in card reader, sockets for USB devices, headphones etc. They rarely have any discs in them and don’t need heavy duty processing power. Typically they are around 8 inches square and 2 inches deep. They use much less power than a PC too so cost less to run.
7 – Less Hardware And Software Worries
A company running its own system might have a list of IT concerns that go something like this:
- Hardware to maintain and replace
- Software to maintain, upgrade, fix, replace
- Provisioning of new hardware and software
- Software version control
- Operating system support; possibly across different versions or even different OS types.
- System availability
- IT support, in house or contracted out
- And more …..
At the time of writing Windows XP has recently been phased out of Microsoft’s support regime but lots of companies still have it and have the headache of what to do next as they can’t stay with XP forever. This is not an issue with hosted desktop services as it’s all kept up to date on an ongoing basis.
Most of the hardware and software that had to be looked after before is no longer a concern with HDS.
With HDS there is often a core set of software that everyone gets such as Microsoft office, Chrome, Adobe Reader etc. Other optional paid for or free standard software can be chosen from. Other off the shelf or bespoke software can be requested and put onto the system for selection or as part of a customer’s standard HDS setup.
The purchase and use of software by people or groups of people can be controlled by an approval system so that a company has control over what they are paying for.
The data for software used can be retained even if not used or paid for all of the time.
With HDS people can’t just download software as they like. Miscellaneous software can come with viruses or malware or compromise the working environment. This is another built in method of controlling the integrity of company IT systems.
8 – More Time For Your Business
Depending on how much IT infrastructure a company has and how it uses it, a significant amount of time might be spent planning and implementing IT strategies. In turn a company may have to spend time communicating with their IT support department or provider. Some of this time will be concerned with day to day IT matters such as security, backup, housekeeping etc. If much of this is offloaded onto HDS either the IT support function can be reduced or diverted to other important company IT projects.
Using Hosted Desktop Services can result in more time spent on a company’s core business and less on IT leading to savings and increased productivity.
9 – Integrate With Your Own Special Systems
A company might have some software and data that they want moved to the HDS servers and for most software this can be done. It’s sometimes referred to as on-boarding. There may be one-time costs for this but once it’s done that company won’t have to worry about looking after it again.
A company might have some systems that just aren’t suitable for HDS for example; a film company might have editing suites with specialized hardware and software that maybe 25% of the company use. Systems like these can be kept as they are and HDS still used in conjunction with those systems where required. Where needed data can be shared, synchronised and local data can be accessed directly from HDS!
10 – A Low Carbon Footprint
Last and not least you and your company will be doing your bit for the environment. The servers used with HDS are usually high quality enterprise servers that use less energy than others and a reduced carbon footprint all round.
If you and your company are using thin clients you will be using less energy at the office end which reduces your own carbon footprint and means you will make some savings too.
Each user takes 100k to 200k of internet bandwidth per session which could be less than what is used normally. Less internet capacity may be needed and may be reduced or utilised elsewhere.
A Special Microsoft Office 365 Note
Microsoft Office 365 is not a hosted desktop service, you still need a company hardware infrastructure. HDS gives you the benefits of Microsoft Office with far more flexibility and without all the maintenance.
Trying Out HDS
Did you find this of interest for your company? The best way to find out is to try it out.
Would you like to trial it for for 14 days from us or a demonstration? Would you like to just have a chat about it?
Fill out the form below and let’s start a dialogue.
Leave us your number and we’ll call you or call 0844 893 2151.
HDS on on www.iwantrouters.com/hosted.
Contact us however is best for you and we’ll accommodate you. Don’t worry we won’t be chasing you like crazy or sending you a torrent of marketing material without your permission.
My business relies on the internet; my phone is an IP phone, it uses the internet. If the internet goes down so does most of my business until it comes back up in maybe hours or days. It doesn’t stop there though because even my TV uses the internet these days and then there’s all those cloud services which means some of my data may not be on any of my computers. I’m running a cable internet connection and it’s pretty fast especially when it comes to downloads. The faster the broadband the more we can do with it and the more we rely on it. And … it doesn’t even stop there either! Laptops, mobile phones, tablets, TV’s, set top boxes, NAS drives, stereo systems, cameras etc. use wireless so wireless is really important too.
If you are running an internet reliant business or would really miss your internet connection at home you won’t want it to go down ever! Well, maybe when you are on holiday … uh oh, got a remote security camera linked to your phone through the internet or some other device, maybe a remote internet linked pet feeder or something.
I think most of us want reliable all the 9’s uptime for our internet but of course that’s not always easy to achieve. Making it 100% reliable I cannot promise in fact even all the 9’s is not that easy but I can probably show you how to make your internet faster, have a higher capacity, make it more reliable and improve your wireless WITHOUT SPENDING A SMALL FORTUNE!
A Common Problem
Most homes and small businesses have one internet connection, one line and one router that functions as a router a switch and a wireless access point … true? If any of those elements go down then so might your internet access. You could go ask the neighbour if you could sling a wire through to your business from their supply or ask for their wireless password and maybe sometimes this is ok, it’s a temporary solution of a sort. If you want to be self reliant though you’ll need another solution.
What happens if …
Your router fails
Simple, go get another router, configure it up (hope you know where your broadband login details are) or better still, have another router on standby, just in case! From my experience most people or businesses don’t have a spare. Your current router might be a bit special but anything will do to get you back up and running if a direct replacement is not to hand.
Your internet connection fails
Could be your ISP, a fault on the line or a JCB digging outside. Either way it’s down to the service level agreements of your provider. You’ll probably be down for a few hours, maybe a few days and if you are really unlucky, a few weeks, it happens, especially if the road needs digging up.
Wireless has come a long way but it’s still a flaky service. It depends on lots of things, how many people are already connected, what’s in your building, atmospheric conditions, the type of wireless network you have and the capabilities of the devices you are trying to connect to it etc.
It’s also not so great when you have more than one wireless access point but your device stays connected to the access point you were near 2 minutes ago and which is now nearly out of range. You could be standing next to another access point on the same network but still not connect to it unless you manually do so.
Does all or some of this sound familiar?
There are very fast internet connections with high up-times and excellent service level agreements that mean if your internet connection does go down it gets fixed quickly but of course that can cost a lot of money and a JCB going through the cable is probably going to scupper even that plan for a while. There’s WiMax, line of site links and even satellite connections but, well, it’s a bit expensive and maybe a bit over the top for many.
My suggested solution below is not new but it has improved over time and costs less than it used to. I’m a fan and distributor of Draytek network devices so I’m going to use and suggest Draytek in my solution but you can use other brands solutions too it’s just that I know Draytek works well, is generally of a good quality, has a high specification etc. Lot’s of businesses and computer support companies use them so I guess that’s an endorsement in itself.
More than one
Broadband is pretty cheap so how about 2 supplies over different networks so that if it’s the ISP or just one line that fails then the other is likely to continue to work. Just to make it belt and braces how about feeding in a mobile broadband supply just in case that clumsy JCB comes our way and cuts all the cables to your premises (don’t laugh, this happened to one company I worked for).
In this case you would have 2 broadband feeds going into the same router which would balance all your internet traffic using the 2 services giving you more speed and capacity. If one broadband service fails then the other carries on until the failed service comes back up. If both services fail then the mobile broadband cuts in.
The mobile broadband does depend on the mobile signal you can get where your router is located and whether it’s 3G or 4G but at least it will let you access the internet. If it’s 4G this could be pretty good! You will need to watch your mobile broadband use depending on the tariff you are using but at least you are still up and running.
What if the router fails? Well of course this can happen so for the cost of it I would keep a second router as a backup. You can backup the configuration of the router in use and load it onto the second router. You can backup the configuration each time you change it and either load it onto the second router or at least have it ready. With some Draytek devices, this one included there is 3 year extended warranty available where they will replace your failed device the next working day with no quibbling. You could even use the second router as a second modem if you configure it correctly but that’s a subject for another day.
Improving Wireless Connectivity
Wireless or WiFi has improved over time. The range is greater, it’s more reliable and easier to connect up to than it used to be but it’s still a variable and sometimes quirky technology. If you need a consistent service over a defined area then you’ll probably need to over do it with wireless coverage.
Many routers are not just routers, they are routers, switches, modems and wireless access points. The wireless part of your main router will provide all you need in a small space but as an operating space gets bigger you will need further wireless access points to cover the area. Wireless access points can be obtained for both indoor and outdoor environments and can work well in a campus type environment.
There are two main variants which we can call push and pull systems. To use a couple of techy terms, the wireless system is called the server and your mobile phone, laptop tablet or other wireless device the client.
Most domestic or small office wireless systems are pull systems which means you manually connect your client device to a wireless server. For example, an office or house has 2 access points, one is a wireless router downstairs and the other is a wireless access point upstairs. When your client device is connected to the downstairs router (a server) it stays connected to it until it goes out of range so if you walk upstairs you may need to manually disconnect from the downstairs router and connect to the upstairs wireless access point. It works but it’s clunky and moving smoothly from one wireless zone to another does not occur. Both wireless access points are part of the same system but the connection to them isn’t managed automatically. You could say that you have to pull connections.
Using the same scenario now the wireless system is being managed and pushing connections. The effect is that when you walk up the stairs the wireless management software built into the system monitors it’s connections and as the signal from one wireless access point becomes weaker and another stronger it pushes connection to the stronger wireless access point to your client device such as your phone.
Another great thing about managed wireless is that it will share the load so if several devices are in range of more than one access point those access points can be made to share the wireless traffic instead of one being overloaded and the other hardly used.
Now you can walk up and down stairs with your client device and stay connected without having to think about it. Where two or more access points are located to manage a lot of wireless traffic they can look after the traffic loads so the user gets a good solid wireless service throughout the operating area.
Managed wireless used to be expensive but it’s not now. It does cost more than pull wireless but not much more and is well within credible cost for domestic or small business users. If you need it it’s well worth the modest extra cost.
If you wanted to set up managed wireless using Draytek components you would need either a Draytek Vigor 2860 or a 2925 series router to act as the controller and either a Draytek Vigor AP810 or AP900 wireless access point.
Here is my suggestion for a robust broadband set-up with managed wireless for around £525+VAT for the equipment. All the prices are relevant at the time writing so whilst prices and devices may have changed by the time you read this I am sure this kind of system will be around for a good while yet!
You will also need 2 broadband supplies which can be a mixture of ADSL max, ADSL2+, Fibre known as FTTC or some other suitable broadband/Ethernet supply. You can use Virgin cable broadband. 2 lines carrying BT like broadband will give you 2 lines of voice as well. The cost of installation of the lines and broadband might come to somewhere between £200 and £250 + VAT. Monthly rental for the 2 lines and broadband might be around £60 to £90 + VAT depending on what you have.
- All equipment and line installations maybe ~£775 + VAT
- Ongoing monthly rental, maybe ~£75 + VAT
|Draytek Vigor 2860n ADSL Router||£180.32 + VAT||The most popular business class router from Draytek. It acts as a controller for the managed wireless as well as managing dual broadband connection with a third mobile broadband connection.You could get 2 of these, 1 to use and 1 as backup.|
|Draytek Vigor AP900 Wireless Access Point||£113.85 + VAT||Currently the top of the range wireless access point from Draytek. Lots of speed, power and flexibility.If the wireless range from your w860n router is not enough then get at least one of these.|
|Draytek Vigor 120 Modem||£41.80 + VAT||You may or not need one of these depending on the broadband you have. This can used to feed a second broadband supply to the 2860n router such as ADSL2+. It cannot be used with fibre broadband. Alternatively you could use the backup 2860n as a second feed if configured correctly but you will lose the second feed if the main 2860n goes down and you have to use the backup instead.|
|Draytek ADSL Tailed Microfilter||£5 + VAT||These split your voice and broadband elements into 2 so you can access broadband and make phone calls at the same time.You could get 2 of these, 1 to use and one as backup.|
|Draytek Vigor AP810 Wireless Access Point||£82.80 + VAT||You can use these instead of AP900’s. It’s not quite as fully featured as the AP900 but if you don’t need those features it will work perfectly well with managed wireless.|
|Draytek VigorCare Enhanced Warranty Subscription B||£36.40 + VAT||For Draytek Vigor 2860 series routers. These extended warranties are worth having. They don’t cost much and they will get you a new device the next day. See below for more information*|
|Draytek VigorCare Enhanced Warranty Subscription A||£24.70 + VAT||For Draytek Vigor 120 modem’s and AP900 or AP810 wireless access points. These extended warranties are worth having. They don’t cost much and they will get you a new device the next day. See below for more information*|
*Draytek VigoreCare Extended Warranty Main Features
- One per device.
- Upgrade of warranty to 3-years
- Advanced-Replacement of faulty unit the next working day subject to delivery destination
- Cover for the whole 3-years for one payment
- Available on all DrayTek routers
- Available within 30 days of router purchase
Over the last few months from the 5th September 2012 until the 5th April 2013 I tweeted 100 snippet’s of information about networking, routers, broadband etc. I also published them as updates in LinkedIn and most in eCademy/Sunzu. I hope some people found them useful. I have preserved them here in case anyone would like to dip into them.
The objective was to explain bits of tech in small digestible chunks that were hopefully fairly easy to understand.
05/09/12 – Snippet 1-SSID stands for “Service Set IDentifier”, a name that will easily identify your wireless network, for example “Smith Family WiFi”.
06/09/12 – Snippet 2-Mode: Wireless standard, IEEE 802.11n is latest, older devices may use 11b or 11g. Set your router for 3 most popular; 11b,11g&11n.
07/09/12 – Snippet 3-Wi Fi uses several frequencies , in most cases leave on auto select. If you get interference select a frequency, see if it helps.
10/09/12 – Snippet 4- If you have a wireless device that uses the 802.11b standard you may need to set “Long Pre-amble” to on in your general settings.
11/09/12 – Snippet 5- Mixed “(WPA+WPA2)/PSK” is the better wireless security setting but if you have older wireless devices some will only use WEP.
12/09/12 – Snippet 6-Password protect your WiFi network at least but did u know u can restrict devices that can connect or exclude those that can’t?
13/09/12 – Snippet 7-Did you know you can use a Wireless Access Point to extend the range of your WiFi? http://clixtrac.com/goto/?91551
14/09/12 – Snippet 8-2 wireless Access Points in a router or stand alone can be used to bridge a virtual cable between each other. http://clixtrac.com/goto/?91551
15/09/12 – Snippet 9-Did u know that on some routers you can control which data gets priority so for example voice and video can run more smoothly?
17/09/12 – Snippet 10-Did you know you can get more powerful aerials for your wireless Routers and Access Points. http://clixtrac.com/goto/?91949
18/09/12 – Snippet 11- You are a small business that needs up to 30 phone extensions but the phone system quote seems too much? – http://clixtrac.com/goto/?92122
19/09/12 – Snippet 12-Good broadband supply depends on exchange distance, cable quality, SNR, Attenuation, Latency, Jitter, Packet loss, more later…
20/09/12 – Snippet 13-SNR-Signal to Noise Ratio, can be adjusted if line is noisy, check router status. 6db is good, range 3db-15db, lower is better.
21/09/12 – Snippet 14-Attenuation, measured in decibels, the quality of ADSL signal. 10db is good, 30db ok, 60db acceptable, more than 60db not good.
24/09/12 – Snippet 15- Latency=delay affects speed. Round trip of data in milliseconds=MS 30ms=great, 50=good, 80=ok, 100+=not good, 200+=talk to ISP.
25/09/12 – Snippet 16-Jitter, how much broadband latency (delay) varies, 30ms to 60=ok, 50 to 80=not bad, 100 to 200=not good.
26/09/12 – Snippet 17-Last BB variable-Packet loss=data loss, packets lost are resent=slow BB. <1%=good, 1%-2.5%=ok, 2.5% to 5%=bad, > 5%=talk to ISP
27/09/12 – Snippet 18-If you want to know what broadband is available to you – http://clixtrac.com/goto/?93445, the telecoms industry uses this!
28/09/12 – Snippet 19-A VPN=Virtual Private Network is your own private road from one computer (or device) to another over the internet.
29/09/12 – Blatant Ad-SIP lines £3.50 month, 1ppm UK Nat/Loc , 5ppm UK mobile, per second billing, no minimum or connection charges http://dld.bz/bNE28
01/10/12 – Snippet 20-PRT Ordering files by date works well like this “YYYY-MM-DD Description 01.xxx”.
02/10/12 – Snippet 21-A modem connects to broadband, a router converts broadband to Ethernet, a switch routes Ethernet to various computers/devices.
03/10/12 – PRT – Cracking Draytek High end dual WAN router with £50 cash back only up to the 19th October -http://clixtrac.com/goto/?94173
05/10/12 – Snippet 22-What do all those weird acronyms mean when I try to configure the broadband on my router? – http://clixtrac.com/goto/?94491
06/12/12 – Snippet 23-Type “ip address” in Google and it will tell you what your current public IP address is, try it!
08/10/12 – Snippet 24-Watch out what you sign up for, avoid the unscrupulous baddies http://clixtrac.com/goto/?94736
09/10/12 – Snippet 25- DNS means “Domain Name System”, it translates a web address to an IP address. It’s made up of many servers in many places.
10/10/12 – Snippet 26-PRT MAC stands for Media Access Control. Every network device has a MAC, phones, computers, tablets. It uniquely identifies a device.
11/10/12 – Snippet 27-DHCP=Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, the system that hands out IP addresses to devices that connect to your network.
12/10/12 – Snippet 28-Static IP address, supplied by your ISP to your router and is always the same, if not static, could change each time you connect.
13/10/12 – Snippet 29-A “Packet” is a unit of data, it can be different sizes and there can be packets within packets, it contains info on what’s in the packet.
14/10/12 – Snippet 30-FTTC=Fibre To The Curb, the latest broadband giving up to 76mbs download and 19mb upload where available.
17/10/12 – Snippet 31-An iPlate, a new cover plate for older phone sockets, it isolates the bell wire which can interfere with broadband.
18/10/12 – Snippet 32-POE=Power Over Ethernet. Power is supplied to a device such as an IP phone from a POE switch instead of using a mains power unit.
19/10/12 – How do I choose the right broadband for me? http://clixtrac.com/goto/?96026
19/10/12 – Snippet 33-QOS=Quality Of Service, give priority to selected data traffic e.g. voice needs to get around fast for a real time conversation!
20/10/12 – Snippet 34-EFM=Ethernet First Mile, 2/4 ADSL supplies bonded together to give much better internet connectivity from exchange to premises.
23/10/12 – Snippet 35-VoIP=Voice over Internet Protocol, phone calls over internet & works well these days, costs less, does more! http://dld.bz/bQvXm
31/10/12 – What would combining 4 x broadband supplies into one do for your business or organisation? http://clixtrac.com/goto/?97233
31/10/12 – Snippet 36-DoS/DDoS=Denial Of Service, example; someone attacks a server with a flood of data so you can’t access a web site hosted there.
01/11/12 – Snippet 37-WLAN Bridging is a method of beaming a wireless link from one location to another as if it was a network cable.
02/11/12 – Snippet 38-Annex M is a high specification ADSL2+ broadband giving up to 16mbs or 24mbs download and 2.5mbs upload speeds.
03/11/12 – Snippet 39-SMTP=Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, simply the protocol / standard for sending email around. Email to SMTP, receive from POP.
04/11/12 – Snippet 40-POP3=Post Office Protocol and is simply the standard / protocol for receiving you email. Email to SMTP, receive from POP.
07/11/12 – Snippet 41-LLU=Local Loop Unbundled, this is where a supplier such as Orange or TalTalk have their own equipment in a BT exchange.
09/11/12 – Snippet 42-SIP=Session Initiation Protocol. This is the open standard used most frequently to make phone calls over the internet.
10/11/12 – Really excellent value for money IP PBX’s (phone systems) http://clixtrac.com/goto/?98331
15/11/12 – Snippet 43-A Dongle-Small device which plugs into computer via USB/other connection, offers a service e.g. WiFi, 3G broadband security etc.
16/11/12 – Snippet 44-Network Adaptor or Home Plug. A plug that allows you to run your local network over the mains, sometimes with built in wireless.
05/12/12 – Snippet 45-The Cloud-A secure place on the internet somewhere to store things so that they can be accessed from anywhere.
07/12/12 – Snippet 46-Unmanaged switch-Simple switch that allows you to distribute to between 4 and 48 network devices from each switch.
08/12/12 – Snippet 47-Managed switch-Configurable sophisticated switch that allows you to distribute to between 4 and 48 network devices from each switch.
10/12/12 – Snippet 48-WD-WRT A Unix based Open Source standard firmware for routers – http://www.dd-wrt.com/site/index
14/12/12 – Snippet 49-Homeplug Mains network adaptor – used to connect network devices over mains electric circuits, some have wireless access points
17/12/12 – Snippet 50-I want to setup a wireless network part 2! – https://iwantrouters.wordpress.com/2012/09/03/i-want-to-setup-a-wireless-network-part-2/
18/12/12 – Snippet 51-ATA=Analogue Terminal Adaptor, device for using analogue devices (a phone) with local or external IP services, IP PBX’s or SIP
20/12/12 – Snippet 52-SSL=Secure Socket Layer, a secure encrypted method of sending information over the internet. See also Snippet 53-TLS.
20/12/12 – Snippet 53-TLS=Transport Layer Security, newer secure encrypted method of sending information over the internet, replaces SSL see Snippet 52
21/12/12 – Snippet 54-Popular voice over internet quality levels G729=low, G711=high, G722=Wideband or HD. Set to G711 for best compromise.
24/12/12 – Faster, more reliable, inexpensive connectivity for business or where internet connectivity is vital – http://clixtrac.com/goto/?93428
27/12/12 – Snippet 55-Data Encryption–transmit data in a form that cannot be understood if intercepted. Various levels of security can be implemented.
28/12/12 – Snippet 56-PBX, Private Branch Exchange. A phone system, used by businesses etc. You can get Analogue/digital/IP PBX’s.
02/01/13 – Snippet 57-PPPOA=Point to Point Protocol over ATM, a protocol used to validate and keep alive your internet connection to your ISP.
06/01/13 – Snippet 58-A/DSL Microfilter-a small box or socket that separates the voice and broadband (DSL) elements on a single analogue phone line.
07/01/13 – Snippet 59-Gigabit Vs 10/100-Gigabit is 10 times faster than 100mbs and 100mbs is 10 times faster than 10mbs networks. Gigabit is the latest
07/01/13 – Learn about broadband, routers, networking, wireless networking etc with the jargon explained – http://clixtrac.com/goto/?104372
17/01/13 – Snippet 60-IP Phones work globally if there is a reasonable connection. Take your IP phone from UK to Australia, it will work, same number!
21/01/13 – Snippet 61-AP=Access Point usually re Wireless. Part of a router or a separate box, transmitter / receiver 4 wireless devices to attach to.
22/01/13 – Snippet 62-WCF=Web Content Filtering, flexible access control to websites and website types, parental control, time based restrictions.
04/02/13 – Snippet 63-Decibal (Db) is the unit of measurement for wireless (WiFi) signal strength, 2Db is low, 12Db is high.
06/02/13 – Snippet 64-BLF=Busy Lamp Field, telecom term, when lit, shows when other phones are in use = when other people are currently on the phone.
10/02/13 – Snippet 65-U=the height a computer related device takes up in a 19” or 23”rack. 1u=44.45mm/1.75” high.
11/02/13 – Snippet 66-SNMP=Simple Network Management Protocol, used for administrating, configuring and monitoring computer networks http://www.net-snmp.org
13/02/13 – Snippet 67-OSI 7 Layer model. How computers & other devices communicate on local networks & the internet. See next 7 snippets for each layer
14/02/13 – Snippet 68-OSI 7 Layer model, layer 1 is the physical layer, wires/cables, the, connectors, plugs, wireless signal, electricity etc.
15/02/13 – Snippet 69-OSI 7 Layer model, layer 2 is the basic high speed transmission of data from point to point regardless of the meaning of the data.
18/02/13 – Snippet 70-OSI 7 Layer model, layer 3 is concerned with the size, routing & integrity of data, making sure data arrives safely.
19/02/13 – Snippet 71-OSI 7 Layer model, layer 4 data is transported to the upper layers as reliably as possible so that SW can use it effectively
20/02/13 – Snippet 72-OSI 7 Layer model, layer 5 establishes and terminates connections locally and remotely between applications
21/02/13 – Snippet 73-OSI 7 Layer model, layer 6 makes sure data is presented to applications in the form they understand
22/02/13 – Snippet 74-OSI 7 Layer model, layer 7 is the applications handling of network data and their internal processes.
23/02/13 – Snippet 75-OSI 7 Layer model names, 1-Physical, 2-Data Link, 3-Network, 4-Transport, 5-Session, 6-Presentatio, 7-Application.
24/02/13 – Snippet 76-Load Balancing is a way of connecting 2 or more broadband supplies to a single router so that they act as 1 broadband supply.
27/02/13 – Snippet 77-Omni directional-When a radio signal radiates out in all directions, 360 degrees
28/02/13 – Snippet 78-Unidirectional-When a radio signal is focused into a cone radiating out 70 degrees for example.
01/03/13 – Snippet 79-HTTP=HyperText Transfer Protocol, tells network programs that web pages are being worked with and how to handle them.
02/03/13 – Snippet 80-HTTPS-The same as HTTP but a secure version using SSL/TLS which is a system for encrypting data. On web pages in this context.
04/03/13 – Snippet 81-A basic byte is made up of 8 bits, a bit is a 0 or a 1. The smallest value is on the right 00000001=1, 00000010=2, 00000011=3 etc
05/03/13 – Snippet 82-CAT 5/6 or Category 5 or 6 networking cables have 8 wires in them and are used in home, office and national networks such as BT.
06/03/13 – Snippet 83-RJ45, a common type of 8 pin plug used for CAT 5/6 cabling. It is fairly square in design with a clip to secure the connection.
07/03/13 – Snippet 84-RJ11, a common type of 6 pin (4 or 6 pins are active) plug used for phone, modem connections etc. similar but smaller than RJ45.
08/03/13 – Snippet 85-Plug connections. You have an RJ11 plug with 6 pins, 4 or 6 pins might be connected e.g. 6PC4 = 6 pins but only 4 connected.
11/03/13 – Snippet 86-UK BT plugs fit an NTE5 socket. 2 types now 431A and 631A, P6C4 & P6C6 respectively, an oddity as the RJ11 would be more standard.
12/03/13 – Snippet 87-USB=Universal Serial BUS. 6 types of plug, used for phones, computers, printers, mice, nearly everything – http://dld.bz/cpKxg
13/03/13 – Snippet 88-Buffer, memory reserved as a capacitor. Like a bucket of water that is always topped up so that it never runs out.
15/03/13 – Snippet 89-NAS-Network Attached Storage-Box with 1 or more hard discs in it & enough circuitry and software to share data across a network.
18/03/13 – Snippet 90-BUS-Name of the internal connection architecture of all the components in a computer. E.g. so a hard drive can talk to a CPU etc.
19/03/13 – Snippet 91-SATA=Serial Advanced Technology Attachment, a type of bus designed for mass storage devices like hard disks.
20/03/13 – Snippet 92-DMZ, derived from “DeMilitarized Zone”. A kind of neutral sub network zone used to protect more sensitive network areas.
21/03/13 – Snippet 93-TCP/IP=Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, this protocol streams raw octal data around the internet reliably.
23/03/13 – Snippet 94-Hidden SSID=“Hidden Service Set IDentifier”. Your wireless network cannot be seen publicly you have to know the name of it.
25/03/13 – Snippet 95-“Failover”, term used to describe switching from one service or device to an alternative where available if the current one fails
29/03/13 – Snippet 96-4G=4th Generation, a new standard of mobile broadband. 2 types, WiMax & LTE (Long Term Evolution). Unclear how good it will be.
02/04/13 – Snippet 97-EWAN=Ethernet Wide Area Networks. Remote connections functioning at Ethernet level as if plugging in a LAN cable
03/04/13 – Snippet 98-Hosted Telephony. A phone system hosted remotely by a provider, you access it & make calls over broadband. You just have phones.
04/04/13 – Snippet 99-GUI=Graphical User Interface. Outmoded term, nearly all our interactions with programs are GUI now. Alternative to command line.
05/04/13 – Snippet 100-The internet-Every computer, mobile, device attached to the internet is part of it and is it. It is the sum of its parts.
More about basic router set-up information …
Default DNS, primary, secondary
DNS stands for “Domain Name System”. This is important for browsing the internet. Each web site you go to resolves to a 4 part IP address such as 22.214.171.124 (in this case www.bbc.co.uk). Try it, type 126.96.36.199 in your browsers address bar and the BBC website will come up. Clearly it is a lot easier for us humans to remember www.bbc.co.uk instead of a 4 digit number separated by decimal points. There are many DNS computer servers around the world that translate website names into their respective IP addresses so that you can easily access them. Normally your Internet Service Provider automatically provides 2 x DNS server IP addresses when you connect to their service. Primary and secondary DNS server IP addresses are provided so there are 2 x DNS servicers to go to.
You don’t have to use your ISP’s DNS servers but they are usually the most convenient as they are automatically supplied. The most likely situation when you might want to change these is if your ISP’s DNS servers have a problem, in this case you could temporarily use public DNS servers. You can easily find some on the internet by Google’ing “public DNS servers”. Take a note of some so that you have alternatives in hand should your normal DNS servers have a problem or your router does not pick them up when connecting to your’ broadband. In fact, Google have public DNS servers, see https://developers.google.com/speed/public-dns/.
IPV4 and IPV6
If your eyes start to glaze over in this bit then skip to the next bit but actually this is quite important going forward.
An IP address is used by devices such as computers, mobile phones, routers, web sites, internet phones etc. It’s the same as each house, shop, town or railway station, everywhere has an address. An IP address is a 4 part number like 188.8.131.52 which is given to each location on the internet so that it can be found. A 4 part IP address is an IPV4 address. When IPV4 was implemented people did not imagine how many devices, websites etc there would be and the result is that IPV4 will not be able to provide enough unique addresses needed for all that it will be used for. This means we need to move to a standard that will allow for more addresses and that standard is IPV6.
IPV6 is an 8 part address in hexadecimal notation separated by colons such as “fe80:0000:0000:0000:0202:b3ff:fe1e:8329”. Not so easy to remember or read but it will allow for many more IP addresses. An IPV6 address also carries more routing information and an 8 part IP address can carry more information than a 4 part address allowing for more efficient data routing and better allocation of IP addresses to countries, for different uses etc. If you want to know more please see IPV4 and IPV6.
Hmmm, well, this is a tad more techy. In effect a subnet mask is used to identify the boundaries of a network or if you like the number of IP addresses available to it. To keep it simple your router will have an address starting with 192.168 and then it will probably have 0.1 or 1.1 as the last part so for example you get 192.168.1.1. Well, so what?! This is the local address of your router; 192.168.1.1 it is the first address of your own local network. It’s like the first address of a flat in a block of flats. The subnet mask lets the router know how many flats there are in the block. Say your router has a local address of 192.168.1.1 and each device such as a computer or mobile phone that connects to it must have a unique local IP address, for example:
- 192.168.1.1 My router
- 192.168.1.2 My desktop computer
- 192.168.1.3 My laptop
- 192.168.1.4 My mobile phone
- 192.168.1.5 My internet phone
If your subnet mask is 255.255.255.0 then the pool of local IP addresses will be 192.168.1.1 to 192.168.1.254 allowing for 254 devices to be connected to it.
A subnet mask can be used at local level, company level, country level etc. IP addresses are shown as decimal numbers for our convenience but the network sees them as binary numbers and masking is a technique used to evaluate binary numbers in certain ways.
A technical explanation of how binary works and network topography is beyond the intention of this blog so I will move on. If you are curious then have a look at InetDaemons article.
In this case we are not talking about the Apple MAC computer or an item of clothing meant to keep the rain off (sorry, I am known for my very bad and not very funny jokes). A MAC is a Media Access Control address and it looks like “01:23:45:67:89:ab”. Every device that can be attached to any part of a network has a unique MAC. For example a mobile phone that can be connected to a network will have its own unique and permanent MAC. This is different to an IP address. An IP address will be given to a device when it connects to a network and may get different IP addresses from different networks but its MAC will always be the same. You might enter different buildings and stay in different rooms but you will always be you, a unique individual! In the same way any device connected to the internet could be identified wherever it is in the world if its MAC is known.
Dynamic / Static IP addresses
Ahh, something simpler to explain. When your router connects to your ISP it will be given an IP address. Each time you connect you might get a different IP address, this is known as a dynamic IP address. If you want to connect to your London office from your office in Birmingham then it’s not going to help if the IP address of the London office keeps changing! In this case your ISP can give you the same known IP address each time your router connects to that ISP, this is known as a fixed or Static IP address. Change your ISP and your static IP address will change
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol! This is the system that hands out IP addresses to devices that attach to your network. This is often performed by routers but on larger installations it is usually performed by a computer server. Only one system should be handing out IP addresses on a network, all other DHCP capable devices must have this feature switched off otherwise there will be chaos and your network will not function properly.
This means Local Area Network. This is a network usually confined to one location although that location could be large such as a site with several buildings. It excludes networking over the internet although a LAN can access the internet.
For example, in your home or small office, a desktop computer, a networked hard disk, a mobile phone, a tablet might all be connected to the same router either by wires or wirelessly.
This could be your home LAN:
Diagram courtesy of www.teach-ict.com.
An office LAN might have many computers, switches, servers etc. connected. It might have LAN’s within LAN’s, it might be complicated with lots of security but it is still a LAN.
This means Wide Area Network and is the network that links different locations together. They might be locations that are in the same city or country or it could be linking locations in different countries. The links might be private links setup by companies to link their locations together or links might be over the public internet. The World Wide Web (www) works over a very large WAN. If you work for a large company you might have an intranet which is like the World Wide Web but is maintained by your company, is private to your company and perhaps its customers, this will work over a WAN.
Diagram courtesy of Computer Basics.
I like packets, especially ones with nice stuff in them that come through the post. Metaphorically that’s more or less what we are going to look at now. When you order something to be delivered to you, you often receive a box with an address attached to the outside. The address label might also have a return address on it and perhaps some information about what’s in the box such as the contents, weight, size etc. Inside the box there may be another box with more information on it and maybe even another inside that, eventually you will get to the actual contents. Sometimes you might receive a box with just simple information and the actual contents present themselves as soon as you open it.
Data packets are like a mail order box. A packet is a chunk of data with a header that tells the network about what’s in the packet, where it needs to go and what method should be used to move it around. Sometimes there will be a footer which is used to mark the end of the packet and may have a special number in it to verify that the packet is complete. Like the box analogy there may be packets within packets.
If you think I have missed something out that is basic let me know and I will add it as appropriate to a third article although I guess it is a matter of opinion where to draw the line.
I’m going to start another category; “I want to <something>” and the next article will be “I want to setup a wireless LAN” as this is one of those questions that come up often. This will include Wireless LAN basics.
Well, I think that’s enough for now, how am I doing?